E. J. Campos, C. A. França, R. R. Rodrigues, and J. H. Muelbert, Inter-relações entre o Atlântico Sul, plataforma continental e regiões costeiras do sul e do sudeste do Brasil, Ciência das Mudanças Climáticas e sua Interdisciplinaridade, 2015.

T. Takahashi, S. C. Sutherland, R. Wanninkhof, C. Sweeney, R. A. Feely et al., Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO 2 , and net sea-air CO 2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Res, vol.56, pp.554-557, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00763263

L. A. Salt, S. M. Heuven, M. E. Claus, E. M. Jones, and H. J. Baar, Rapid acidification of mode and intermediate waters in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, Biogeosciences, vol.12, pp.1387-1401, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01251672

D. Carvalho-borges, M. Orselli, I. B. De-carvalho-ferreira, M. L. Kerr, and R. , Seawater acidification and anthropogenic carbon distribution on continental shelf and slope of the western South Atlantic Ocean, J. Mar. Syst, 2018.

I. B. Orselli, R. Kerr, R. G. Ito, V. M. Tavano, C. R. Mendes et al., How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?, J. Mar. Syst, vol.178, pp.1-14, 2018.

V. Kitidis, I. Brown, N. Hardman-mountford, and N. Lefèvre, Surface ocean carbon dioxide during the Atlantic Meridional Transect (1995-2013): Evidence of ocean acidification, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.158, pp.65-75, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01832117

N. Gruber, D. Clement, B. R. Carter, R. A. Feely, S. Van-heuven et al., The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO 2 from, Science, vol.363, pp.1193-1199, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02088162

E. L. Howes, F. Joos, M. Eakin, and J. Gattuso, The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I: An Updated Synthesis of the Observed and Projected Impacts of Climate Change on Physical and Biological Processes in the Oceans; Studies N ? 02/15, vol.IDDRI, p.52, 2015.

P. C. Pardo, F. F. Pérez, S. Khatiwala, and A. F. Ríos, Anthropogenic CO 2 estimates in the Southern Ocean: Storage partitioning in the different water masses, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.120, pp.230-242, 2014.

C. L. Sabine, R. A. Feely, N. Gruber, R. M. Key, K. Lee et al., The Ocean Sink for Anthropogenic CO 2, Science, vol.305, pp.367-371, 2004.

T. Tanhua, M. Hoppema, E. M. Jones, T. Stöven, J. Hauck et al., Temporal changes in ventilation and the carbonate system in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res

P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell, Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model, Nature, vol.408, pp.184-187, 2000.

F. Touratier, C. Goyet, L. Houpert, X. D. De-madron, D. Lefèvre et al., Role of deep convection on anthropogenic CO 2 sequestration in the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Deep-Sea Res. I, vol.113, pp.33-48, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01336725

A. H. Orsi, G. C. Johnson, and J. L. Bullister, Circulation, mixing and production of Antarctic bottom water, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.43, pp.55-109, 1999.

S. Rintoul, The Southern Ocean in the Earth System

L. Talley, G. Pickard, W. Emery, and J. Swift, Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction, 2011.

W. J. Emery, Water types and water masses, pp.1556-1567, 2003.

K. Hanawa, L. D. Talley, and . Waters, Ocean Circulation and Climate: Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean

G. Siedle, J. Church, and J. Gould, Academic, pp.373-386, 2001.

H. M. Van-aken, A. K. Van-veldhoven, C. Veth, W. P. De-ruijter, P. J. Van-leeuwen et al., Observations of a young Agulhas ring, Astrid, during MARE in, Deep-Sea Res. II, vol.50, pp.167-195, 2000.

A. G. Souza, R. Kerr, and J. L. Azevedo, On the influence of Subtropical Mode Water on the South Atlantic Ocean, J. Mar. Syst, vol.185, pp.13-24, 2018.

L. M. Beal, A Time Series of Agulhas Undercurrent Transport, J. Phys. Oceanogr, vol.39, pp.2436-2450, 2009.

A. Biastoch, J. V. Durgadoo, A. K. Morrison, E. Van-sebille, W. Weijer et al., Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage, Nat. Commun, vol.6, p.10082, 2015.

L. Stramma and M. England, On the Water masses and mean circulation of the South Atlantic Ocean, J Geophys. Res, vol.104, pp.20863-20883, 1999.

M. L. Ferreira and R. Kerr, Source water distribution and quantification of North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water in the Atlantic Ocean, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.153, pp.66-83, 2017.

A. R. Robinson, Eddies in Marine Science, p.614, 1983.

A. Biastoch, C. W. Böning, and J. R. Lutjeharms, Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, vol.456, pp.489-492, 2008.

W. P. De-ruijter, A. Biastoch, S. S. Drijhout, J. R. Lutjeharms, R. Matano et al., Dynamics, estimation and impact of South Atlantic interocean exchange, J. Geophys. Res, vol.104, pp.20885-20910, 1999.

J. R. Lutjeharms, The Agulhas Current, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00298322

A. Biastoch, C. W. Böning, F. U. Schwarzkopf, and J. R. Lutjeharms, Increase in Agulhas leakage due to poleward shift of southern hemisphere westerlies, Nature, vol.462, 2009.

J. M. Souza, C. De-boyer-montégut, C. Cabanes, and P. Klein, Estimation of the Agulhas ring impacts on meridional heat fluxes and transport using ARGO floats and satellite data, Geophys. Res. Lett, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00741220

E. Bard and R. E. Rickaby, Migration of the subtropical front as a modulator of glacial climate, Nature, vol.460, pp.380-383, 2009.

O. T. Sato and P. Polito, Observation of South Atlantic subtropical mode Waters with Argo profiling float data, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, vol.119, pp.2860-2881, 2014.

A. B. Villas-bôas, O. T. Sato, A. Chaigneau, and G. P. Castelão, The signature of mesoscale eddies on the air-sea turbulent heat fluxes in the South Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.42, pp.1856-1862, 2015.

I. B. Orselli, R. Kerr, J. L. Azevedo, F. Galdino, M. Araujo et al., The sea-air CO 2 net fluxes in the South Atlantic Ocean and the role played by Agulhas eddies, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.170, pp.40-52, 2019.

A. F. Ríos, X. A. Álvarez-salgado, F. F. Pérez, L. S. Bingler, J. Arístegui et al., Carbon dioxide along WOCE line A14: Water masses characterization and anthropogenic entry, J. Geophys. Res, vol.108, p.3123, 2003.

S. Moreau, A. Della-penna, J. Llort, R. Patel, C. Langlais et al., Eddy-induced carbon transport across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, vol.31, pp.1368-1386, 2017.

M. M. Mata, V. M. Tavano, and C. A. Garcia, 15 years sailing with the Brazilian High Latitude Oceanography Group (GOAL). Deep-Sea Res, vol.149, pp.1-3, 2018.

J. M. Lencina-avila, R. G. Ito, C. A. Garcia, and V. M. Tavano, Sea-air carbon dioxide fluxes along 35 ? s in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent continental shelves. Deep-Sea Res. I, vol.115, pp.175-187, 2016.

A. C. Carvalho, C. R. Mendes, R. Kerr, J. L. Azevedo, F. Galdino et al., The impact of mesoscale eddies on the phytoplankton community in the South Atlantic Ocean: HPLC-CHEMTAX approach, Mar. Environ. Res, vol.144, pp.154-165, 2019.

H. Uchida, M. Fukasawa, A. Murata, A. P6, and I. Blue, Earth Global Expedition, pp.1-2, 2003.

R. Wanninkhof, R. Feely, F. Millero, C. ;. Carlson, . O'neil et al., Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown in the Atlantic Ocean on CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Section A10, 2011.

D. B. Chelton, M. G. Schlax, and R. G. Samelson, Global observations of nonlinear mesoscale eddies, Prog. Oceanogr, vol.91, pp.167-216, 2011.

M. G. Schlax, D. B. Chelton, and . The, Growing Method" of Eddy Identification and Tracking in Two and Three Dimensions

D. , Handbook of Methods for Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Seawater, vol.2

A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet, , 1994.

K. M. Johnson, A. G. Dickson, G. Eischeid, C. Goyet, P. Guenther et al., Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Assessment of the quality of total inorganic carbon measurements made during the US Indian Ocean CO 2 survey 1994-1996, Mar. Chem, vol.63, pp.21-37, 1998.

C. Goyet and S. D. Hacker, Procedure for calibration of a coulometric system used for total inorganic carbon measurements in seawater, Mar. Chem, vol.38, pp.37-53, 1992.

K. M. Johnson, A. E. King, and J. M. Sieburth, Coulometric TCO 2 analyses for marine studies: An introduction, Mar. Chem, vol.16, pp.61-82, 1985.

K. M. Johnson, P. J. Williams, L. Brandstrom, and J. M. Sieburth, Coulometric total carbon analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration, Mar. Chem, vol.21, pp.117-133, 1987.

K. M. Johnson, Operator's Manual: Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA) for Total Carbon Dioxide (CT) with Coulometric Detection, 1992.

G. P. Patil and C. R. Rao, Environmental Statistics: Amsterdan, vol.12, p.927, 1994.

C. Goyet, R. J. Healy, and J. P. Ryan, Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the Deepest Winter Mixed Layer Depths

. Ornl/cdiac-127, NDP-076; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, p.40, 2000.

F. Touratier, L. Azouzi, and C. Goyet, CFC-11, ?C 14 C and 3 H tracers as a means to assess anthropogenic CO 2 concentrations in the ocean, Tellus, vol.59, pp.318-325, 2007.

F. Touratier and C. Goyet, Definition, properties, and Atlantic Ocean distribution of the new tracer TrOCA, J. Mar. Syst, vol.46, pp.169-179, 2004.

F. Touratier and C. Goyet, Applying the new TrOCA approach to assess the distribution of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean, J. Mar. Syst, vol.46, pp.181-197, 2004.

J. R. Lutjeharms and H. R. Valentine, Water types and volumetric considerations of the South-East Atlantic upwelling regime, Afr. J. Mar. Sci, vol.5, pp.63-71, 1987.

O. O. Möller, . Jr, A. R. Piola, A. C. Freitas, and E. J. Campos, The effects of river discharge and seasonal winds on the shelf off Southwestern South America, Cont. Shelf Res, vol.28, pp.1607-1624, 2008.

J. A. Newton, R. A. Feely, E. B. Jewett, P. Williamson, and J. Mathis, Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network, p.12, 2019.

C. Goyet and D. L. Davis, Estimation of TCO 2 concentration throughout the water column. Deep-Sea Res. I, vol.44, pp.859-877, 1997.

C. Goyet, R. G. Ito, and F. Touratier, Anthropogenic carbon distribution in the eastern South Pacific Ocean, Biogeosciences, vol.6, pp.149-156, 2009.

C. Goyet, C. Coatanoan, G. Eischeid, T. Amaoka, K. Okuda et al., Spatial variation of total CO 2 and total alkalinity in the northern Indian Ocean: A novel approach for the quantification of anthropogenic CO 2 in seawater, J. Mar. Res, vol.57, pp.135-163, 1999.

F. J. Millero, The marine inorganic carbon cycle, Chem. Rev, vol.107, pp.308-341, 2007.

M. Casanova-masjoan, J. L. Pelegrí, P. Sangrà, A. Martínez, D. Grisolía-santos et al., Characteristics and evolution of an Agulhas ring, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, vol.122, pp.7049-7065, 2017.

R. Kerr, C. Goyet, L. C. Cunha, I. B. Orselli, J. M. Lencina-avila et al., II. Anthropogenic CO 2 and Seawater Acidification. Deep-Sea Res, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01714167

N. Gruber, J. L. Sarmiento, and T. F. Stocker, An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO 2 in the oceans, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, vol.10, pp.809-837, 1996.

R. Kerr, L. C. Cunha, R. K. Kikuchi, P. Horta, R. G. Ito et al., The western South Atlantic Ocean in a high-CO 2 world: Current measurement capabilities and perspectives, Environ. Manag, vol.57, pp.740-752, 2016.

B. R. Carter, R. A. Feely, N. L. Williams, A. G. Dickson, M. B. Fong et al., Updated methods for global locally interpolated estimation of alkalinity, pH and nitrate, Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 2017.

A. R. Perretti, A. C. Albergaria-barbosa, R. Kerr, and L. C. Cunha, Ocean acidification studies and the uncertainties relevance on measurements of marine carbonate system properties, Braz. J. Oceanogr, vol.66, pp.234-242, 2018.

R. Laxenaire, S. Speich, B. Blanke, A. Chaigneau, C. Pegliasco et al., Anticyclonic eddies connecting the western boundaries of Indian and Atlantic oceans, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02107694

L. A. Guerra, A. M. Paiva, and E. P. Chassignet, On the translation of Agulhas rings to the western South Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I, vol.139, pp.104-113, 2018.

R. J. Woosley, F. Millero, and R. Wanninkhof, Rapid Anthropogenic Changes in CO 2 and pH in the Atlantic Ocean, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, vol.30, pp.70-90, 2003.

R. Lumpkin and S. L. Garzoli, Interannual to Decadal Variability in the Southwestern Atlantic's Surface Circulation, J. Geophys. Res, vol.116, 1014.

R. R. Rodrigues, R. J. Haarsma, E. J. Campos, and T. Ambrizzi, The impacts of inter-El Nino variability on the Tropical Atlantic and Northeast Brazil climate, J. Clim, vol.24, pp.3402-3422, 2011.

R. R. Rodrigues, E. J. Campos, and R. J. Haarsma, The Impact of ENSO in the South Atlantic Subtropical Dipole Mode, J. Clim, vol.28, pp.2692-2705, 2015.

P. Castellanos, E. J. Campos, J. Piera, O. T. Sato, and M. A. Silva-dias, Impacts of Agulhas Leakage on the Tropical Atlantic Western Boundary Systems, J. Clim, 2017.

J. E. Pereira and I. Wainer, A mudança do clima e seus impactos no oceano Atlântico Sul em escala regional, Ciência das Mudanças Climáticas e sua Interdisciplinaridade

T. Ambrizzi, P. R. Jacobi, and L. Dutra, , 2015.

, This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI